Reference Words

There are six main kinds of reference words.

1. Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns are I, you, she, he, it, we, they.

EX: The new policy is in place because it covers the current situation. | It refers to new policy.

2. Possessive pronouns

The possessive pronouns show a relationship of ownership or ‘belonging to’. They are: my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs.

EX: Mary and Bill have a new car. Their new car is blue. | Their refers to Mary and Bill.

3. Demonstratives

Demonstratives are similar to personal and possessive pronouns in that they refer to nouns usually already present in the text. However, they have a stronger pointing quality – they identify (point at) exactly which thing or things are being referred to.

The most common demonstratives are: this, that (singular), these, those (plural), such.

EX: The scientists conducted a successful study. That study has since been published. | That refers back to the successful study already mentioned.

4. Comparatives
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